Many Gram‑negative bacteria are resistant to multiple antibiotics and are becoming more resistant at an increasing rate from year to year.1
Carbapenem‑resistant (CR) infections are associated with significant complications and a high mortality rate.2
These 3 mechanisms often coexist, which adds to the challenge of treating CR pathogens.3
β‑LACTAMASES break the critical β‑lactam bond, rendering the antibiotic inactive.4
PORIN CHANNEL changes reduce the amount of β‑lactam antibiotic reaching the periplasm through the following3:
EFFLUX PUMPS contribute to β‑lactam resistance by expelling antibiotic from the periplasm.3
Based on a US analysis,
Of all Gram‑negative infections seen in the hospital,* the non‑fermenters A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were associated with the highest rates of CR, across all infection sites (44.8% and 14.2%, respectively).5
These non‑fermenters (A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa) caused the highest number of CR Gram‑negative infections, which are some of the most difficult to treat.5,*
*Data from hospitalized patients with infections due to Gram‑negative (N=292,742) pathogens were gathered from the Premier Healthcare Database between 2009 and 2013. From these data, the total number of infections and proportion of CR infections by pathogen and infection site were calculated.5, 7
Here are some helpful resources and scientific posters analyzing trends of Gram‑negative infections:
Ogura 2015: a poster investigating the impact of CR Gram‑negative infections on all-cause in-hospital mortality from 2009 to 2013.
Echols‡ 2015: a poster reviewing a variety of combination regimens and recommending the best available therapy by pathogen.
Cai 2016: a poster reviewing Gram‑negative pathogens in patients; the data were gathered from the Premier Healthcare Database between 2009 and 2013.
‡ Dr. Echols is a paid consultant of Shionogi Inc.
The organizations listed below are following trends in Gram-negative CR infections.
Click on the links below to learn more.
§ Dr. Echols is a paid consultant of Shionogi Inc.